• flocculation

    Flocculation

    OverviewApplicationsTerm definitionDeflocculationSee alsoFurther reading

    In colloid chemistry, flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into a floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid (creaming), settle to the bottom of the liquid (sedimentation), or be readily filtered from the liquid. Flocculation behavior of soil colloids is closely related to freshwater quality. High dispersibility of soil colloids not only directly causes turbidity of the surrounding water but it also induces eutrophicationdue to the adsorption of nutritional substances in riv

  • coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater

    Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater

    Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater TreatmentThe CoagulantsRemoval of Natural Organic MatterPathogen RemovalRemoval of InorganicsWastewater TreatmentFactors Affecting Coagulation OperationsRapid MixingFlocculationTesting and ControlSludge HandlingFurther ReadingReferencesRelated PublicationsCoagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used al

    WO1998058072A1 Flocculation of biological material

    In a further aspect, anionic microparticulate material can be used to flocculate biological material selected from cells, cell debris and enzyme from a reaction mixture having high conductivity and comprising organic acid or salt thereof, such as lactic acid.

  • who international standard 7. use of material 8 nibsc

    WHO International Standard 7. USE OF MATERIAL 8 NIBSC

    WHO International Standard 2nd International Standard for Tetanus Toxoid for use in Flocculation Test NIBSC code: 04/150 Instructions for use (Version 8.0, Dated 04/12/2012) 1. INTENDED USE This material has been prepared as a replacement for the 1st International Reference Reagent for Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test (TEFT,

  • flocculation of biological material from

    FLOCCULATION OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL FROM

    In a further aspect, anionic microparticulate material can be used to flocculate biological material selected from cells, cell debris and enzyme from a reaction mixture having high conductivity and comprising organic acid or salt thereof, such as lactic acid.

  • flocculation,flocculation process,uses of flocculation process

    Flocculation,Flocculation Process,Uses of Flocculation Process

    Biological (Bacterial populations and extracellular polymeric material). Uses of Flocculation. Predominant uses of flocculation is in water and wastewater treatment, such as drinking water treatment, sewage water treatment, storm water treatment and treatment of various other industrial wastewater streams.

  • details biological flocculation of microalgae

    Details Biological flocculation of microalgae

    The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.

  • coagulation- flocculation headworks international

    Coagulation- Flocculation Headworks International

    The biological processes used are usually a combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment in which an anaerobic process is used to the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD), followed by aerobic method for polishing. This method has benefits as it is eco-friendly, produces less sludge, is cost-competitive, and generates energy in the form of

  • coagulation-flocculation sswm find tools

    Coagulation-Flocculation SSWM Find tools

    Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter.

  • biological wastewater treatment clearfox

    Biological Wastewater Treatment clearfox

    Light material such as fat, oil and grease will float, material with higher density will sink to the bottom. Components for the mechanical cleaning are rake, sieve, grease trap, grit chamber, flotation and pre-chamber. What is biological cleaning or biological treatment?

  • chitosan flocculation of cardboard-mill secondary

    Chitosan flocculation of cardboard-mill secondary

    In the present study, the flocculation of cardboard industry wastewater, treated by a biological process in an aerated lagoon, was examined using commercial grade polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and chitosan (CHITO) dissolved in acetic acid as flocculating agents. A series of flocculation jar-tests was conducted under different conditions. The

  • flocculation theory and background

    Flocculation Theory and Background

    Cell disruption can create lots of small cell fragments which clog filters and slow down filtration rates. Flocculation is used to aggregate these small cell fragments. Applying flocculation ensures a high flux over filtration units as well as efficient and cost effective separation of cell material from supernatant. Oil and Gas Upstream Production

  • sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation

    Sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation

    Sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation for upgrading biological effluent of coking wastewater†. Zhichun Zhang ab, Xiuping Yue * a, Yanqing Duan a, Xiao Zhang a, Yanjuan Gao a, Rao Zhu c and Xia Cui d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, 79 Yingzexi Road, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi Province, P. R. China.

  • chemical flocculation of microorganisms in biological

    Chemical Flocculation of Microorganisms in Biological

    biological means alone. While bio logical treatment is necessary for the elimination of soluble organic matter, chemical flocculation methods may be expected to agglomerate dispersed mi croorganisms and to remove suspended, colloidal, and non-dissimilated macro molecular material as efficiently as or even more efficiently than exclusive

  • details biological flocculation of microalgae

    Details Biological flocculation of microalgae

    The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.

  • biological floc definition english

    biological floc definition English

    The mixture is particularly suited to enhancing flocculation of particles, reducing fouling on a surface of a membrane in a membrane bioreactor, improving uptake of phosphorous and/or nitrogen by a biomass in a biological water treatment system, improving bioactivity of a biomass and/or floc in a biological water treatment system and improving

  • coagulation-flocculation sswm find tools

    Coagulation-Flocculation SSWM Find tools

    Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter.

  • flocculation of biological cells: experiment vs. theory

    Flocculation of biological cells: Experiment vs. theory

    2003-07-01· Read "Flocculation of biological cells: Experiment vs. theory, Aiche Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

  • bio-flocculation

    Bio-Flocculation

    The results showed that the backwashing sludge had preferable biological flocculation ability. A promising treatment performance, which sufficed the influent requirement of BAF was observed whether by using the backwashing sludge or combined using chemical coagulant and biological sludge in the enhanced domestic wastewater pretreatment process

  • biological wastewater treatment

    Biological Wastewater Treatment

    Light material such as fat, oil and grease will float, material with higher density will sink to the bottom. Components for the mechanical cleaning are rake, sieve, grease trap, grit chamber, flotation and pre-chamber. What is biological cleaning or biological treatment?

  • bio-flocculation

    Bio-Flocculation

    The results showed that the backwashing sludge had preferable biological flocculation ability. A promising treatment performance, which sufficed the influent requirement of BAF was observed whether by using the backwashing sludge or combined using chemical coagulant and biological sludge in the enhanced domestic wastewater pretreatment process

  • sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation

    Sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation

    Sulfate radical oxidation combined with iron flocculation for upgrading biological effluent of coking wastewater Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes. Reproduced material should be attributed as follows: For reproduction of material from NJC

  • distance- principal aspects of chemical and biological

    Distance- Principal Aspects of Chemical and Biological

    This course discusses special water purification methods using chemical and biological treatment processes. Topics include precipitation, oxidation-reduction, coagulation and flocculation, ion-exchange, disinfection, as well as wastewater treatment, microbiological consideration and biodegradation kinetics. Biological treatment processes such as activated sludge, sequencing batch reactors

  • coagulation-flocculation processes in water/wastewater

    COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PROCESSES IN WATER/WASTEWATER

    2. Coagulation flocculation in water and wastewater treatment The suspended material in waters and in wastewaters mostly arise from land erosion, the dissolution of minerals, the decay of vegetation and from several domestic and industrial waste discharges. For a given water or wastewater, such material may comprise suspended, dissolved

  • expert committee on biological collaborative study

    EXPERT COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL Collaborative study

    This material was reconstituted and freeze-dried at NIBSC in August 2002 and coded 02/176. It was confirmed to be active in flocculation test and to be sufficiently stable to act as a WHO IRR. An international collaborative study including 17 laboratories from 15 countries was carried out to examine the candidate replacement material. The

  • flocculation scientific.net

    Flocculation Scientific.Net

    Abstract: Through the photoinitiation technology synthetizes anionic polyacrylamide (APAM), with the raw material of sodium acrylate (AANa) and acrylamide (AM). The results show that the best ratio of AANa-AM is 1:3, mass fraction of AM is 30%, pH value is 7.0, reaction temperature is 40°C, good intrinsic viscosity and solubility in APAM can

  • flocculation in natural and engineered environmental

    Flocculation in natural and engineered environmental

    "Flocculation in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems is composed of 20 peer-reviewed, stand-alone chapters presented by a prominent team of international experts. The book focuses on physical and chemical aspects, and on the growing importance of biological processes for flocculation.

  • us patent for biological and ballasetd flocculation

    US Patent for Biological and ballasetd flocculation

    A method for treating wastewater comprises biologically treating the wastewater in a fixed-biomass biological reactor and then treating the wastewater in a ballasted flocculation system. The ballasted flocculation system produces a clarified effluent and sludge containing inert granular material having biomass accumulated thereon and suspended solids.

  • expert committee on biological standardization

    EXPERT COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION

    EXPERT COMMITTEE ON BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION Geneva, 12 to 16 October 2015 Collaborative study: Calibration of Replacement International Standard for Diphtheria Toxoid for use in Flocculation Test Laura Coombes1, Peter Rigsby2, Dorothea Sesardic1, Paul Stickings1 Division of Bacteriology1, Biostatistics Section2, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South

  • treatment of paint manufacturing wastewater by

    TREATMENT OF PAINT MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY

    TREATMENT OF PAINT MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY THE COMBINATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES M.A. Aboulhassan1*, S. Souabi2, A. Yaacoubi3 and M. Baudu4 1Department of Civil Engineering, ENSA, BP 03, Ajdir Al-Hoceima, Morocco 2Laboratory of Water Engineering and Environment, FST, Mohammedia, Morocco 3Laboratory of Organic Applied

  • freshwater microalgae harvested via flocculation

    Freshwater microalgae harvested via flocculation

    Recent studies have demonstrated that microalga has been widely regarded as one of the most promising raw materials of biofuels. However, lack of an economical, efficient and convenient method to harvest microalgae is a bottleneck to boost their full-scale application. Many methods of harvesting microalgae, including mechanical, electrical, biological and chemical based, have been studied to

  • coagulation-flocculation processes in water/wastewater

    COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PROCESSES IN WATER/WASTEWATER

    2. Coagulation flocculation in water and wastewater treatment The suspended material in waters and in wastewaters mostly arise from land erosion, the dissolution of minerals, the decay of vegetation and from several domestic and industrial waste discharges. For a given water or wastewater, such material may comprise suspended, dissolved

  • comparison of coagulation/flocculation

    Comparison of Coagulation/Flocculation

    In addition, various additives can be used to aid in the coagulation and flocculation process. These may accelerate the flocculation process or strengthen the floc to make it easier to filter. Coagulant aids can be roughly broken into two classes based on their mechanism of action. Some coagulant aids, generally the synthetic polymers, bind to

  • an effective flocculation method to the kaolin wastewater

    An Effective Flocculation Method to the Kaolin Wastewater

    The optimal flocculation conditions were set at a dosage of 2.0 mg l −1 and a pH of 7.0. In the kaolin wastewater flocculation tests, the supernatant residual turbidity and the floc size were used to review the kaolin flocculation performance by adding the synthesized PAD.

  • flocculation and sedimentation water treatment

    Flocculation and Sedimentation Water Treatment

    Flocculation and sedimentation are technological processes used by Veolia Water Technologies South Africa (Veolia) within water treatment cycles to make water safe to drink or for water reuse.Flocculation and sedimentation cannot occur without coagulation, and some of Veolia’s patented Hydrex® water treatment chemicals are used to facilitate all of these processes.

  • flocculation of escherichia coli using a quaternary

    Flocculation of Escherichia coli Using a Quaternary

    Moreover, the flocculation mechanisms were investigated via zeta potential measurements, floc observation, and three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix spectra analysis. Apart from its flocculating and settling effect, this chitosan-based material has bactericidal action through the breaking of bacterial cell walls by grafted quaternary ammonium salt.

  • flocculation

    Flocculation

    Flocculation is used in biotechnology applications in conjunction with microfiltration to improve the efficiency of biological feeds; the addition of synthetic flocculants to the bioreactor can increase the average particle size making microfiltration more efficient. When flocculants are not added, cakes form and accumulate causing low cell

  • recent advancement of coagulation–flocculation and its

    Recent Advancement of Coagulation–Flocculation and Its

    2016-03-04· Coagulation–flocculation process is regarded as one of the most important and widely used treatment processes of industrial wastewaters due to its simplicity and effectiveness. This paper provides a critical review on recent studies of coagulation–flocculation treatment processes of various industrial wastewaters. The limitations and

  • table 1 from quantitative estimation of diphtheria

    Table 1 from Quantitative estimation of diphtheria

    Table 1. Calibration of the two proposed international reference materials DIFT and TETF in 13 laboratories using the Ramon flocculation test "Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf

  • quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids

    Quantitative Estimation of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids

    Quantitative Estimation of Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids. 4. Toxoids as International Reference Materials Defining Lf-units for Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids7 Jsrn Lyng* * WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standards, State Serum Institute, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark Abstract. The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of

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