Predicting Toxicity for Simple Water-Based Drilling Fluids
A response-surface methodology (RSM) is an empirical technique that is suited to modeling such effects using a small number of data points. A RSM was used to model the toxicity of basic water-based drilling fluids consisting of bentonite, polyanionic cellulose (PAC),
Prediction of Toxicity Effects of Oil Field Chemicals
The prediction and classification of Oil Field Chemicals (toxic or non-toxic) using this hybrid intelligent system is a work that requires an in-depth study and understanding of the various underlying principles of Neuro-Fuzzy inference system and Genetic Algorithm, which is commonly applied for classification and regression purposes. The
Drilling fluid types PetroWikiWater-Based FluidsDrill-In FluidsOil-Based FluidsSynthetic-Based Drilling FluidsAll-Oil FluidsPneumatic-Drilling FluidsSpecialty ProductsWater-based fluids (WBFs) are used to drill approximately 80% of all wells. The base fluid may be fresh water, seawater, brine, saturated brine, or a formate brine. The type of fluid selected depends on anticipated well conditions or on the specific interval of the well being drilled. For example, the surface interval typically is drilled with a low-density water- or seawater-based mud that contains few commercial additives. These systems incorporate natural clays in the course of the drillin...
Toxicity Characteristics of Drilling Mud and Its Effect
Toxicity tests are important for assessing the effects of complex chemical mixtures, such as waste drilling mud, on aquatic ecosystems. When waste drilling mud is released into the marine
Drilling Fluid Technology: Performances and Environmental
Drilling Fluid Technology: Performances and Environmental Considerations 229 1. The WBM family, in which fresh-, salt-, or sea-water is the continuous phase, is the most used (90-95%). The WBM are mainly composed of aqueous solutions of polymers and clays in water or brines, with different types of additives incorporated to the aqueous solution.
[0.92]Apparent Viscosity Prediction of Water-Based Muds
cooling, lubricating the drill string, etc. . The majority of the used drilling ﬂuids are water-based. In water-based mud, the used liquid can be either freshwater or saltwater, which have been used in this study. Water-based muds are preferable because they are cheap, easy to prepare, and able to mitigate most well control problems [5
Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling
Concise and comprehensive, Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids details all the necessary educational content and handy references to elevate your
CATIONIC POLYMER DRILLING FLUID CAN SOMETIMES
If such cationic additives were present in a water-based drilling fluid, the cationic additives could adsorb on the clay surfaces on the well bore and cuttings as they become exposed by the bit
JPT Low-Toxicity Polymer Fluid Developed
This paper discusses a new, environmentally safe, water-based polymer drilling fluid that has been developed for offshore drilling applications with temperature resistance to 200°C and low biological toxicity. The system comprises two basic polymeric components for high-temperature rheology and filtration control, along with a special
The use of grass as an environmentally friendly additive
2016-03-29· This paper presents an approach where grass is introduced as a sustainable drilling fluid additive with no environmental problems. Simple water-based drilling fluids were formulated using bentonite, powdered grass, and water to analyze the rheological and filtration characteristics of the new drilling fluid. A particle size distribution test
JPT Vol 71, No 11-November 2019
Drilling has become a complex operation that requires a multitude of tasks to be managed at the same time. Not surprisingly, then, drilling automation will gain momentum in the near future to deliver consistent execution and performance safely and with good wellbore quality.
New Solutions, Practices Redefining Cutting-Edge In
New Solutions, Practices Redefining Cutting-Edge In Fluids Technology By Ryen Caenn LAGUNA BEACH, CA.–Drilling fluids technology and best practices continue to evolve in step with the industry’s relentless quest to optimize drilling performance in all types of geology, operating environments and wellbore geometries.
A New Generation Environment Friendly Water-Based
Environmental performance of the drilling fluid system is ideal, EC 50 value is 1.61×10 5, no biological toxicity, BOD 5 /CODcr is 0.11, easy biodegradation. Field application for morethan 30 wells, with beyond 20 deviated wells and highly-deviation angle more than 50 ° wells are 10.
Drilling fluid environmental considerations PetroWiki
The toxicity of a drilling fluid and/or of cuttings that are generated with the fluid is determined by the fluid composition and is measured using a variety of testing protocols. Table 2 lists tests that the 2002 modifications to the EPA General Permit require to be performed where SBF is used. Discharge of whole SBF is prohibited. Unblended
An Experimental Study of Gas Solubility in Oil-Based
The results showed that the solubility of CO2/CxHy gas in the oil-/water-based drilling fluid gradually increases with the increases of casing pressure and the ratio of oil to water at certain
Exceeding Drilling Performance and Environmental
From a drilling perspective, there are several additional benefits that can be obtained by choosing a potassium silicate drilling fluid. Potassium silicate drilling fluids provide good shale inhibition and wellbore stability in reactive shales. They can be reused in multi-well drilling programs and are easy to dispose of with fairly low
Xanthan Gum and Scleroglucan How both differ
In order to reduce the mud toxicity, we developed water based mud systems using two biopolymers, which are xanthan gum and scleroglucan, generally proposed for high permeability reservoirs or for
Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing
Designing an eco-friendly Water-Based mud is a necessity for HPHT drilling. A new environmentally safe water based containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) system has been tested for drilling application with temperatures up to 500 °F. The system components are newly developed and do not contain any environmentally harmful materials.
A solids-free brine drilling fluid system for coiled
The lubricant SD-505 is less toxic and has little effect on the rheological properties of drilling fluid, which is in compliance with safety and environmental protection concept. Therefore, it is selected as the lubricant in the solids-free brine drilling fluid system. 1.1.4. Selection of bit cleaner The mode of coiled tubing drilling is sliding drilling from beginning to end, and it is very
Development of Low Toxicity and High Temperature
It brings severe challenges to drilling fluids when drilling high temperature deep well in environmentally sensitive sea area and facing strict environmental protection laws and regulation requirements meanwhile, the toxic value of drilling fluid must reach up the standard requirement of 30,000 mg/L.A new, environmentally safe water-based polymer system has been developed for drilling
Drilling fluids SlideShare
2015-09-02· Drilling Fluid Types • A drilling fluid can be classified by the nature of its continuous fluid phase. There are three types of drilling fluids: 1. Water Based Muds 2. Oil Based Muds 3. Gas Based Muds 29. WATER BASED MUD: • These are fluids where water is the continuous phase. The water may be fresh, brackish or seawater, whichever is most
A generalized model for apparent viscosity of oil-based
Traditionally, the oil and gas industry uses Bingham plastic and power-law models in the field to predict the viscosity of drilling fluids because of their simplicity. However, most drilling fluids are better described using the Herschel-Bulkley model (Herzhaft et al., 2003; Kenny and Hemphill, 1996). It is essential to express accurately flow
Polymer Drilling Fluids Underground Construction
Improved viscosity in fresh water based drilling fluids and improved solids separation in side of hydrocylones due to “shear thinning” characteristics. Drill solids encapsulation and improved wellbore lubricity allows for less bentonite consumption and less colloidal solids to provide improved bit penetration rates.
OTO 1999/089 Drilling Fluids Composition and Use Within
estimate of drilling mud use in the UK offshore drilling industry between 1994 and 1998, based on returns made to SCOPEC. Figures for low toxicity oil based muds and synthetic based muds 140 120 eo 1996 Year Figure 1 1998 1995 Estimate of drilling mud usage by mass, 1994 — 1998. Source. SCOPEC are reasonably accurate, as the muds are supplied ready formulated, minimising the risk of
Fracking the Future The Dangers of Gas Drilling
Drilling wastes from certain areas are especially radioactive, threatening the communities near disposal sites. In Pennsylvania, toxic drilling wastewater taken into a sewage treatment plant killed the microbes needed to properly treat the sewage. As a result, improperly treated fecal matter was discharged into the Susquehanna River.
SMii7Y's Predictions Part 3: Too Many Compilations
2018-11-25· Did I make this compilation out of my free will, or only because SMii7Y predicted that I would? This video is dedicated to SMii7Y, for putting smiles on
Assessing sediment contamination in estuaries Chapman
Laboratory toxicity tests involve a snapshot in time. As such, they cannot adequately predict in situ estuarine toxicity where major salinity variations occur in the sediments, for instance, in the mesohaline portions of salt wedge estuaries. Estuarine single‐species tests to date have been heavily weighted to crustaceans, particularly
TABLE OF CONTENTS
7. For the purpose of holding drill cuttings (not fluids) from water-based drilling operations only, above ground containment shall be constructed using soils that have: a) equal to or greater than 40 per cent fines (defined as dry weight percentage passing the No. 200 sieve); and b) equal to or greater than 28 per cent clay (0.002 mm or smaller
DEFOAM-A Alcohol-Based Defoamer
DEFOAM-A defoamer is formulated with higher esters to control foaming in all water-based drilling fluids containing freshwater, brackish water, seawater, saltwater, and saturated saltwater as well as completion fluids. Keywords
Assessing Drilling Waste Disposal Areas: Compliance
Drilling waste disposal areas include portions of the wellsite, remote sump, or land treatment area where drilling wastes have been buried, spread on land, or mixed into soil. Off-lease agricultural or forested land used for disposal of drilling waste by pump-off, landspray-while-drilling, or landspray does not require a reclamation certificate.
Study on Well Control Technology of High Temperature
But, so far the well control technology of high temperature geothermal drilling has not been paid attention to by relative person, the serious shortage of related technology and equipments retards the development of geothermal resources. This article describes the calculating methods of formation pressure, collapse pressure, circulating
Drilling Fluid Super Absorbent Polymer M2 Polymer
Drilling fluid contamination pollutes environments and impacts the climate. The fluids used in drilling processes include simple water-based cuttings, high salt/chloride streams, oil/diesel-based cutting fluids and of course, blended wastes with water and hydrocarbons. We offer cost-effective alternatives to sawdust and corn cob for all types
Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling
Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids effectively delivers all the background and infrastructure needed for an oil and gas engineer to utilize more water-based products that benefit the whole spectrum of the well’s life cycle. Helping to mitigate critical well issues such as formation damage, fluid
Nonaqueous Fluid an overview ScienceDirect Topics
Ryen Caenn, George R.,in Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids (Seventh Edition), 2017. Nonaqueous-Based Systems. The original nonaqueous fluid was the use of crude oil or refined oils, such as stove oil, as the base fluid and was called an oil-based mud (OBM) (Swan, 1923).Crude oil muds were difficult to maintain so the industry settled on diesel oil as the base
Resin8 Making JESMONITE jewellery YouTube
2016-05-09· Step-by-step tutorial on how to make pendants using JESMONITE our new non-toxic, water-based resin system. JESMONITE is a non-toxic, water-based resin system that is made up of 2
4 METHODS FOR TOXICITY TESTING Pesticides in the
registration of given product. The list of pesticides for which registration standards have been issued is referred to as List A and can be found in Appendix I of the Federal Register notice of February 22, 1989. Under the FIFRA Amendments of 1988, the data bases on the remaining registered pesticide products are being upgraded in five phases over a 9-year period.
OILMUD. A microcomputer program for predicting oil
OILMUD$*$/ is a program for predicting the densities and hydrostatic pressures in oil-based mud columns at high pressures and temperatures. The program uses multiple-linear-regression analysis on experimental data to calculate the densities and static pressures for diesel-oil-based mud and for four less-toxic mineral-oil-based muds.