• optimum turbidity removal by coagulation/flocculation

    Optimum turbidity removal by coagulation/flocculation

    2012-05-15· Alum (Al 2 (SO 4) 3, 18H 2 O) shows the optimum performance at pH 10.62 and dosage of 1.092 (g/l) with a rate of 87% removal of TSS and residual turbidity 18 NTU. Furthermore, coagulants (AlCl 3) at pH 9.23 and dosage of 0.780 (g/l) indicates the optimum removal efficiency of 80% TSS and residual turbidity of 19 NTU. Three coagulants used in

  • coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater

    Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater

    Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater TreatmentThe CoagulantsRemoval of Natural Organic MatterPathogen RemovalRemoval of InorganicsWastewater TreatmentFactors Affecting Coagulation OperationsRapid MixingFlocculationTesting and ControlSludge HandlingFurther ReadingReferencesRelated PublicationsCoagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used al

    Optimum turbidity removal by coagulation/flocculation

    2O) shows the optimum performance at pH 10.62 and dosage of 1.092 (g/l) with a rate of 87% removal of TSS and residual turbidity 18 NTU. Furthermore, coagulants (AlCl 3) at pH 9.23 and dosage of 0.780 (g/l) indicates the optimum removal efficiency of 80% TSS and residual turbidity of 19 NTU. Three coagulants used in

  • optimum turbidity removal by

    OPTIMUM TURBIDITY REMOVAL BY

    Among the coagulants used, AlCl3 gave the best result in terms of turbidity removal by coagulation from NSPW at pH 6 and 9, whereas the turbidity removal performances of the three coagulants were

  • (pdf) turbidity removal from wastewater of natural stone

    (PDF) Turbidity Removal from Wastewater of Natural Stone

    The effectiveness of coagulation (at pH values of 6, 7.5, and 9), flocculation (at pH 9), and coagulation plus flocculation (at pH 9) on turbidity removal from natural stone (travertine

  • evaluation of chemical coagulation–flocculation aids

    Evaluation of chemical coagulation–flocculation aids

    Optimum turbidity removal was achieved with a 60 mg/l dosage for both alum and ferric chloride. Both alum and ferric chloride demonstrated excellent removal of suspended solids from initial TSS values of approximately 100–10 mg/l at a dosage of 90 mg/l. Flocculation and mixing speed played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for both orthophosphates and suspended solids. Both

  • determination of the optimal dosage of aluminum sulfate

    Determination of the Optimal Dosage of Aluminum Sulfate

    the temperature the longer it takes for flocculation of particles to occur. 1) Preparation of samples . Sixteen samples were prepared under different levels of initial turbidity that was within the range of 10-1000 NTU, Determination of the Optimal Dosage of Aluminum Sulfate in the Coagulation-Flocculation Process Using an Artificial Neural Network

  • treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a

    Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a

    The increase in the turbidity removal for the turbidity׳s initial concentration more than 250 NTU might be attributed to other mechanisms such as sweeping flocculation rather than the neutralization of the surface charge of colloids. However, the percentage turbidity removal for all the initial turbidity concentrations was significant (>95.6%

  • ene 806 project report 2 coagulation and flocculation

    ENE 806 Project Report 2 COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION

    When the issue of the coagulant dosage is solved, the optimum pH range for coagulation is also a undergoing topic. Hatfield found the optimum pH range for color removal to be 6.1 to 6.3, but it worth to be noted that the value for maximum floc formations depends upon the anion present in the solution, such as SO4 2-, Cl-, etc (Hatfield, W.D., J

  • coagulation-flocculation sswm find tools

    Coagulation-Flocculation SSWM Find tools

    A coagulation-flocculation process, based on aluminium sulfate, is studied in this paper using Response Surface Methodology, in order to establish the optimum parameters to achieve a maximum suspensions removal. This methodology allows a treatment plant operator to determine easily, after a small number of trials, the optimum conditions to

  • analysis and optimization of coagulation

    Analysis and optimization of coagulation

    Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum

  • study on the factors affecting coagulation

    Study on the factors affecting coagulation

    products. Coagulation and flocculation can achieve the effective removal of suspended particles. Operating within the optimum parameters will reduce the cost of treatment and will increase the quality of the water. The objectives of the study were, to compare the effectiveness of

  • prospects and challenges of using coagulation-flocculation

    Prospects and Challenges of Using Coagulation-Flocculation

    The purpose of coagulation and flocculation is to remove particulate impurities, especially non-settleable solids and colour from the water being treated. Non-settleable particles in water are removed by the use of coagulating chemicals. In the coagulation process, chemicals are added which will

  • coagulation (water treatment)

    Coagulation (water treatment)

    Coagulation is a chemical process that involves neutralization of charge whereas flocculation is a physical process and does not involve neutralization of charge. The coagulation-flocculation process can be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water or wastewater treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation.

  • the effectiveness of chitosan as coagulant aid

    The effectiveness of chitosan as coagulant aid

    Coagulation of turbidity in river water using chitosan as coagulant aid and ferric chloride as coagulant was studied in the pH range 4-9 and initial turbidity concentrations in the range of 20-200 mg/l. Results: The findings showed that the optimum pH for FeCl 3 as a coagulant on turbidity removal was seven. About 95% removal of turbidity is achieved at this pH, without filtration and the

  • using coagulants poly aluminum chloride and aluminum

    Using Coagulants Poly Aluminum Chloride and Aluminum

    Determine the optimum pH for removal the turbidity and TP in secondary effluent, it is obviously that pH control coagulation is one of the most important factor governing phosphorus removal, as phosphorus always combine with sludge particles, here simply test removal rate of turbidity

  • coagulation-flocculation performance of snail

    COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PERFORMANCE OF SNAIL

    tive site which is not present in the RSS sample. The coagulation-flocculation experiments showed that the removal efficiency of turbidity of the effluent increases with a decrease in solution pH and increase in coagulant dosage, settling time and temperature. A kinetic study revealed that the removal rate of total dissolved and suspended solids

  • coagulation/flocculation process for produced water treatment

    Coagulation/Flocculation Process for Produced Water Treatment

    remove suspended solids and reduce turbidity include: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration (Al-Sameraiy, 2012). Removal of turbidity by coagulation depends on the type of colloids in suspension, the temperature, PH, chemical composition of

  • drinking water treatability database

    Drinking Water Treatability Database

    Sweep flocculation occurs when colloidal contaminants are entrained or swept down by the precipitates as they settle in the suspension. The optimal pH range for coagulation is 6 to 7 when using alum and 5.5 to 6.5 when using iron. For high alkalinity water, excessive amounts of coagulant may be needed to lower the pH to the optimal pH range. In

  • determination of optimum coagulants (ferric chloride

    Determination of Optimum Coagulants (Ferric Chloride

    Optimum arsenic and turbidity removal for alum dosages were achieved with a 25 mg/L and 16 mg/L respectively. Optimum arsenic and turbidity removal for ferric chloride dosages were achieved with a 20 mg/Land 8 mg/L respectively. In terms of minimizing the arsenic and turbidity levels, the optimum pH ranges were 6.5 and

  • coagulation/flocculation process for produced water treatment

    Coagulation/Flocculation Process for Produced Water Treatment

    remove suspended solids and reduce turbidity include: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration (Al-Sameraiy, 2012). Removal of turbidity by coagulation depends on the type of colloids in suspension, the temperature, PH, chemical composition of

  • engi 9628 environmental laboratory lab #5 jar testing

    ENGI 9628 Environmental Laboratory Lab #5 Jar Testing

    A jar test simulates the coagulation and flocculation processes that encourage the removal of suspended colloids and organic matter which can lead to turbidity, odor and taste problems. Jar Testing apparatus Figure 1. Diagram of jar testing device The jar testing apparatus (see Figure 1) contains six paddles which stir the contents of six 1 liter containers. One container acts as a control

  • effect of ph on the turbidity removal of wastewater

    Effect of pH on the Turbidity Removal of Wastewater

    An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. It was also

  • optimizing coagulation process for low to high turbidity

    Optimizing Coagulation Process for Low to High Turbidity

    coagulation-flocculation followed by clarification. Ferric chloride and alum, which are the most common types of coagulants in water treatment plants of Iran as well as many other countries, were investigated with the aim of determining their capabilities to reduce turbidity of drinking water. Turbidity was added as kaolin. Optimization of coagulation process may assure removal of turbidity to

  • proteins from natural coagulant for potential application

    Proteins from Natural Coagulant for Potential Application

    Application of Turbidity Removal in Water G.Muthuraman*, S.Sasikala, N. Prakash Presidency College, Department of chemistry, Chennai-05, India. Abstract: Coagulation-flocculation followed by sedimentation and filtration is the most commonly used water treatment process,in which turbidity or particles removal is

  • a novel water pretreatment approach for turbidity removal

    A Novel Water Pretreatment Approach for Turbidity Removal

    turbidity removal, R (%) was calculated using the formula given: % 3. Results and Discussions . 3.1. Investigation of the Optimum Coagulants Doses . Dosage is one of the most important parameters that has been considered to determine the optimum conditions for the coagulation and flocculation. Basically, insufficient

  • study of the coagulation process in wastewater

    Study of the coagulation process in wastewater

    Study of the coagulation process in wastewater treatment of dairy industries Mahshid Loloei 1, Hosein Alidadi 2, Gholamabbas Nekonam 1, Yousef Kor 3 1 Environmental Health Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran 2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health,

  • coagulation and flocculation mechanisms water

    Coagulation And Flocculation Mechanisms Water

    2019-10-30· Coagulation And Flocculation Mechanisms Last Updated on Wed, 30 Oct 2019 Water Treatment The main challenge in removing turbidity and organics from water supplies is to cope with impurities that are negatively charged at natural pH levels, and have formed a stabilised dispersion.

  • a new approach using coagulation rate constant

    A new approach using coagulation rate constant

    2015-09-23· This variation in performance of these coagulants is expected due to every coagulant has ability in terms of coagulation activity for turbidity removal. In consequence, this ability plays a vitally important role in investigating the optimum dose for coagulation–flocculation process (Al

  • 13. effect of temperature on floc formation process

    13. Effect of Temperature on Floc Formation Process

    effective with increase the initial turbidity. The effect of flocculation velocity gradient on floc formation and strength, at low temperature was significant, but as temperature increases the effect will be less. Better results of turbidity removal had appeared when velocity gradient was increased from 10, to 20 then to 30 and 40 S-1. At

  • assessment of endotoxin removal from reclaimed

    Assessment of Endotoxin Removal from Reclaimed

    Further increases of the coagulant dose did not improve the removal efficiency. DOC and turbidity removal were at their optimum at higher pH range 5.5 6.5. Thus coagulation and flocculation could be considered as the first barrier and should be followed by

  • application of chemical coagulation aids for the removal

    Application of Chemical Coagulation Aids for the Removal

    chloride demonstrated excellent removal of suspended solids from initial total suspended solid values of approximately 320 mg/L to approximately 10 mg/L at a dosage of 60 mg/L. Flocculation and mixing speed and duration played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for both orthophosphates and suspended solids. Both coagulation

  • water treatment coagulation flocculation 10 flashcards

    Water Treatment Coagulation Flocculation 10 Flashcards

    7. Coagulation and sedimentation alone cannot remove all of the turbidity and suspended matter in raw water. The final step in the removal of suspended matter in water is a. Chlorination b. Sterilization c. Flocculation d. Filtration

  • water supply system coagulation and flocculation

    Water supply system Coagulation and flocculation

    Even after coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation does not remove enough suspended impurities from water to make it crystal clear. The remaining nonsettling floc causes noticeable turbidity in the water and can shield microbes from disinfection. Filtration is a physical process that removes

  • coagulation-flocculation treatment of a tropical surface

    Coagulation-Flocculation Treatment of a Tropical Surface

    A wide range of alum dosage and pH were explored to achieve optimum removal of turbidity and DOC. The coagulation pH was adjusted with sulphuric acid (H2SO4, 1 M) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 1M) or saturated solution of lime (filtered through 0.45 µm filter) to obtain values between pH 3.5 and 7.5.Optimization of parameters was determined by high

  • optimization of coagulation/flocculation for treatment

    Optimization of Coagulation/Flocculation for Treatment

    the removal of COD and turbidity. As can be seen, removal percentage of COD and turbidity was 38% and 99% respectively, which both test results were acceptable. 3- Jar test results Sampling (6 samples every 2 hours, 1 liter for each time) was done from the second pond of treatment plant. COD and TDS of the raw wastewater were 1870 and 3290

  • jar test for determining “coagulant” dosage in water

    Jar test for determining “Coagulant” dosage in Water

    2013-01-03· Aim: To determine the optimum dosage of coagulant to remove small or charged particles present inside water by using "Alum" as coagulant. Principle : The two basic terms which can exactly explain the happenings of this experiment are "Coagulation" and "Flocculation". 1. Coagulation: It is the process of addition of a chemical to de-stabilize a

  • optimization of coagulation−flocculation process

    Optimization of Coagulation−Flocculation Process

    The coagulation−flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation−flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the

  • zeta potential as a tool to evaluate the optimum

    Zeta potential as a tool to evaluate the optimum

    "Zeta potential as a tool to evaluate the optimum performance of a coagulation-flocculation process for wastewater internal treatment for recirculation in the pulp and paper process," BioRes. 12(3), 5953-5969.

  • use of natural coagulants to remove turbidity from water

    Use of Natural Coagulants to Remove Turbidity from water

    Use of Natural Coagulants to Remove Turbidity from water D R Gursal1, Dr. M V Jadhav2 1 PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sanjivani College Of Engineering Kopargaon,Affiliated To Savirtibai Phule Pune University Maharashtra, India. e-mail id: [email protected] 2Professor & P.G. Co-ordinator, Department of Civil Engineering, Sanjivani College Of Engineering Kopargaon

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